The underlying drivers of low emotion efficacy as we conceptualize it are emotion avoidance and distress intolerance. We define emotion avoidance as an unwillingness to experience difficult emotions, which then fuels distress and leads to more suffering.   

Distress intolerance refers to a person’s inability to experience intense emotions. Both of these maladaptive responses to emotions typically result in responses that do not serve the individual in recovering from intense emotion triggers, or choosing responses consistent with their values.

Often these drivers work in tandem to leave people feeling that they don't have a choice when they get emotionally triggered.  Emotion Efficacy Therapy (EET) targets these drivers through 5 components: Emotion Awareness, Mindful Acceptance, Values-Based Action, Mindful Coping and Exposure-based Skills Practice.